Reading Content - Current Affairs - 28-Sept 2018 - UPSC, IIMCAT, SSC, Banking, CSAT, CLAT


Reading Content from Current Affairs with PT

Given below is the full content of the Current Affairs session conducted for above date. Relevant news clips can be opened here, relevant video can be opened from datewise listing here, and our Youtube channel playlist is here. Enjoy the learning, and do write us a Testimonial here!


Aadhaar gets thumbs up from Supreme Court

1.Summary of judgement: The Supreme Court, in a 4-1 decision on 26th Sept., upheld Aadhaar as a reasonable restriction on individual privacy that fulfils the government’s “legitimate aim” to provide dignity to a large, marginalised population living in abject poverty.

2.It is a Money Bill: Upholding the passage of the Aadhaar Act as a Money Bill, the SC said the statute only sought “minimal” biometric information, and did not amount to invasion of privacy but linking Aadhar with mobile and SIM Cards was declared unconstitutional.

3.Children insulated : Aadhar is not necessary for children between age 6-14 for availing the benfits under SSA, and CBSE and UGC cannot ask for Aadhar.

4.  Voice of dissent : The loan dissenter Justice Chandrachud observed that the state has failed to demonstrate that a less intrusive measure other than biometric authentication would not subserve its purposes and declared that the Aadhar Act was unconstitutional. (4 Judges did not)

5.  Varied reactions : The Congress says the SC judgement backed its vision but the FM said the judgement will speed up delivery of services to the poorer sections of the society. He also claimed a law may be brought for private sector use of Aadhar!


Deleting biometric data is difficult

1.Majority opinion silent : The majority opinion in S.C. Aadhaar verdict is silent on deleting biometric data already collected by phone companies etc., but Justice Chandrachud has said that whatever data is collected so far should be deleted forthwith.

2.The bone of contention :  A circular issued by the DoT on March 23, 2017, mandating the linking of mobile numbers with Aadhaar, has been ruled unconstitutional.

3.A blow to private entities: The SC said that a mere contract between a private entity and an individual was not enough to demand Aadhaar from the latter.

4. Account opening to be impacted?: Bankers say that as there are no other officially valid documents apart from Aadhaar for digital use, accounts cannot be opened online if the customer decides not to share Aadhar. As much as 80-85% of SBI’s accounts are linked with Aadhaar, and it opens 27,000 digital accounts daily. So, will deletion happen?

1.New rules : The Ministry of Home Affairs has notified new rules amalgamating police forces in six Union Territories. The rules effectively mean that officers, who are not direct IPS recruits, could be posted in any of the six UTs and will be at the disposal of the MHA.

2.Creation of a Central Police Cadre :  This is the first step towards the creation of a central police cadre allowing for the posting of police personnel across the country irrespective of the force they are initially inducted into.

3.533 posts :  The new rules will cover around 533 posts including ACPs and DSPs. Half of the posts at ACP rank will be filled through direct recruitment and the other half through promotion. Earlier these postings were decided by the respective UT administrators.

4.New service : The new service will be known as the National Capital Territory of Delhi, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Daman and Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Chandigarh Police Service.

5.Advantages : (1) To ensure that local police personnel do not fall prey to serving vested interests in their home services, (2) Ensure that they don’t become complacent, and (3) Local police gets a chance to learn modern methods of policing at Delhi.

Boost to SC/ST quota in promotions

1.Modification of a 2006 judgment : On 26th Sept, the SC modified a 2006 judgment and relaxed the rule for govt. to produce ‘quantifiable data’ of backwardness, to provide quota in promotion in public employment.

2.2006 judgment contradictory : In the Indira Sawhney case 1992, the Supreme Court had held that the “test or requirement of social and educational backwardness cannot be applied to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes…”. The Presidential List of Scheduled Tribes only refers to those tribes in remote backward areas who are socially extremely backward.

3.Creamy layer: Justice Nariman said that creamy layer applied to SC/ST in promotions.

4.Reason for exclusion of creamy layer : Justice Nariman said that the whole object of reservation is to see that backward classes of citizens move forward so that they may march hand in hand with other citizens of India on an equal basis. This will not be possible if only the creamy layer within that class bag all the coveted jobs in the public sector and perpetuate themselves.

1.Summary of judgement : A 4-judge Bench of the SC, in a majority opinion of 3 : 1, declined to refer the question if a “mosque as a place of prayer is an essential part of Islam” in the Ramjanmabhoomi-Babri Masjid appeals to a 7-judge Bench and hearing in the main Ayodhya title suit appeals will resume.

2.The 1994 judgment : Constitution Bench of SC in the 1994 judgment in the Ismail Faruqui case made an observation that a mosque is not an essential part of the practice of the religion of Islam.

3.Dissenting opinion : Justice S. Abdul Nazeer dissented and observed that the question of what is essential or not in a religion cannot be hastily decided.

4.  Fundamental rights : What is essential or not in a religion can be decided only after studying tenets, beliefs, and doctrines. Justice Nazeer held that the comment has to be examined in the background of the fundamental right against discrimination under Article 15 and the protection guaranteed to practice, profess and propagate religion in Articles 25 and 26 under the Constitution.

5.  The view of the appellants : The Muslim appellants had pressed that the place of a mosque in Islam and the importance of the practice of offering prayers inside a mosque should be first decided by a five-judge Bench.

Recyclers storing electronic waste hazardously : Environment Ministry says so is it not

1.New report : A report by the MoEFCC says that many of India’s electronic-waste (e-waste) recyclers aren’t recycling waste at all. While some are storing it in hazardous conditions, others don’t even have the capacity to handle such waste.

2.E-waste in India :  India generates more than two million tonnes of e-waste annually and has 178 registered e-waste recyclers accredited by the State governments.

3.The E-waste rules of 2017:   The 2017 rules require companies that make or sell electronic equipment to collect a certain percentage of e-waste generated from their goods once they have reached their “end-of-life.”

4.Transgressions :  Checks revealed that “…a number of transgressions were seen committed by the recycling facilities such as adopting non-environmentally sound methods of storage, handling and processing of e-waste…non-compliance with guidelines of the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)...” etc.

5.What recyclers say : One said that his firm was registered as a ‘dismantler’ and not as a ‘recycler’. Recycling requires specialised equipment, and that’s too expensive.
Lack of consensus stalls demonetisation report again

1.BJP members oppose finalisation: The BJP members continued to oppose the finalisation of the long-pending report on demonetisation by reconstituted Parliamentary Committee on Finance.

2.Why the opposition : Newer evidence, including a report by RBI, had come up since the draft report was circulated almost six months ago and these needed to be factored into the report.

3.Trinamool’s stance : The RBI Governor had deposed twice before the committee and senior bureaucrats too had spent several man hours. The Committee is duty-bound to deliver the report to the Parliament even if consensus cannot be built.

4.Chairman’s statement : The chairman Mr. Verappa Moily commented that after more witnesses and further deliberations the report will be tabled in Parliament.
Adultery is not a crime, rules SC; strikes it off IPC and Cr PC

1.The judgment : A 5-judge SC Constitution Bench held that adultery is not a crime and struck it off the Indian Penal Code (IPC) observing that Section 497 (adultery) of the Code “commands” married couples to remain loyal to each other.

2.A matter of choice :  The CJI said that two individuals may part if one cheats, but to attach criminality to infidelity is excessive. How married couples deal with adultery is “absolutely a matter of privacy”.

3.Moral commitment and marriage :  Loss of moral commitment in a marriage creates a dent in the relationship, but individuals have to decide how to deal with it.

4.Gender discrimination : Section 497 of the IPC treated the wife as the husband’s property . Under this section adultery was not a crime if husband consented to his wife’s extra-marital affair. This section has been struck down.

5.A woman is free to choose : Justice D.Y. Chandrachud held that a married woman can make her own sexual choices. By marrying, she has not consented to refrain from relations outside marriage without the permission of her husband.

1.Mismatch : A scientific study has found mismatch between investment in solar energy sources and employment generation in the sector.

2.Impact on farmers : The study stated that farmers in Rajasthan have immensely benefited from the solar photovoltaic (SPV) water pumping systems and there has been a significant decline in the consumption of fuel in the agriculture sector.

3.Greenhouse effect : Farmers used to operate diesel generators for 6 -7 hours a day but the use of SPV pumps has resulted in a decline in fuel consumption lessening the greenhouse effect.

4.Problems with electricity : The grid-connected electricity is supplied to agriculture sector mostly during the night. Using SPV pumps  the farmers can irrigate the land during daytime making their access to water easy.

5.Subsidies being given since 2010-11 : Rajasthan government subsidises SPV water pumping systems since 2011-12 because Power supply to the agriculture sector in Rajasthan ranges between 5 and 6 hours a day.

Should the convicts in the Rajiv Gandhi case be released?

1.Varying opinions: There is no uniform opinion as to whether the 7 convicts in the Rajiv Gandhi assassination case must be released or not.

2.The “Yes” vIew :  Indian prison system must work on the theory of reformative justice. If not released the state will be violating Article 14 of the Constitution which says that it “shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws”.

3.Reintegration into society : Failure to consider prisoners who have served the prescribed sentence of 20 years  for reintegration into our society shows the system is at fault somewhere, not the prisoner.

4.The “No” view :  Keeping in mind the kind of conspiracy and crime that they have committed, there is no reason to exercise pardon in their favour. Remission has been rejected on grounds that are well known, and includes issues of national security and national integrity.

5.Anti terrorist measures : The object of anti-terrorist measures is to deter future activity and to prevent terrorist activities. No ground appears to exist to agitate again on issues which have been deliberated upon by constitutional and statutory authorities.

6.The “It’s complicated” view : The Supreme Court, in Gopal Vinayak Godse v. the State of Maharashtra (1961), ruled that a sentence of imprisonment for life means imprisonment for the rest of one’s natural life. Life sentences awarded to convicts, including those involved in terror activities, do not automatically imply remission.

Uzbek President to invite India to join Afghan rail project

1.Key rail link : A 650 km rail link, connecting the Afghan cities of Mazaar-e-Sharif and Herat, which may be extended to Kabul, is agreed to by Afghan President Ashraf G hani and Uzbek President Mirziyoyev  in 2017. India will be invited to help with a key rail link.

2.India’s contributions : India has  already completed the construction of the Zaranj-Delaram Highway in Afghanistan and the Shahid Beheshti port in Chabahar, Iran. India is also committed to building another rail route, from Chabahar to Zahedan on Iran-Afghan border.

3.Advantages for India : The rail route to Herat, if extended to Kabul, would also link India’s “air corridor”, allowing trade, especially dry fruits and agricultural produce to travel along the routes from India to Central Asia and back in much shorter time.

4.Indo-Pak talks : Uzbekistan said that SCO is a good platform for India and Pakistan to talk and to maybe work with other countries on how to bring peace.

Beijing slams U.S. after jets fly over S. China Sea

1.   Pentagon’s announcement : On 26th Sept., the Pentagon said heavy bombers had taken part in a combined operation with Japan over the East China Sea and had flown through international airspace over the South China Sea.

2.  China’s reaction : The Chinese Defence Ministry denounced flyovers by U.S. B-52 bombers over the South China Sea and the East China Sea as “provocative” actions.

3.  China’s claims : China has claimed large swathes of the strategic waterway and built up a series of islands and maritime features, turning them into military facilities. Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan and Vietnam have competing claims to the region, and an international maritime tribunal ruled in 2016 that China’s claims have no legal basis.

4.  Rejected by the US : The US rejects China’s territorial claims and says the military will “continue to fly, sail and operate wherever international law allows”.

US Fed hikes rates, sees 3 more years of growth

1.Growth years : The U.S. Federal Reserve raised interest rates on 26th Sept and left intact its plans to steadily tighten monetary policy. It forecast that the U.S. economy would grow another three years.

2.Another rate hike foreseen? The benchmark overnight lending rate was lifted by 0.25% to a range of 2.00% to 2.25%. The U.S. central bank still foresees another rate hike in December, three more next year, and one increase in 2020.

3.The position of the dollar : The U.S. dollar briefly weakened against a basket of currencies. U.S. stocks initially extended gains but fell later in the trading session.

4.Trump criticises : The rate increase once again drew criticism from President Trump, who has complained that the Fed’s actions are countering his efforts to boost the economy.

Telangana is under EC model code of conduct (post dissolution of Assembly)
Enhanced pay for J&K SPOs based on threat perception
Railways to roll out “smart coaches” with black boxes, and real time information
BJP, RSS welcome Ayodhya SC ruling, while Congress claims they’re fooling people
Dr. Ford accuses Trump’s US S.C. pick Judge Kavanaugh of sexual assault years ago
Maldives opposition seeks foreign help to ensure smooth transition of power!

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Current Affairs with PT: Reading Content - Current Affairs - 28-Sept 2018 - UPSC, IIMCAT, SSC, Banking, CSAT, CLAT
Reading Content - Current Affairs - 28-Sept 2018 - UPSC, IIMCAT, SSC, Banking, CSAT, CLAT
Reading Content from Current Affairs with PT
Current Affairs with PT
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